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HPAT Section 1 Logical Reasoning & Problem Solving

Question 1

Adam, Brad, Cale, Dan, Eric and Fred are a group of work colleagues who are all participating in a triathlon for charity. Following the completion of the race, each member of the group was to donate a certain amount of money to their chosen charity based on their finishing position. However, the committee misplaced the results table, and so the task of determining the finishing order falls to the spectators of the race, whose memories are sketchy. The first spectator asked remembers seeing Dan complete the triathlon at least two places after Adam; furthermore, the spectator recalls that Dan did not finish last. And, while nobody remembers who finished earlier out of Cale and Eric, there is agreement amongst the crowd Brad did not finish before Fred. It is also agreed that Adam wasn’t last, while the last spectator recalls with certainty that Brad finished third.

If the six colleagues are the only ones competing in the triathlon, which of the following must be false?

  • [A] Dan finished after Eric.
  • [B] Adam finished three spots before Cale.
  • [C] Fred did not win the triathlon.
  • [D] Cale and Eric finished fifth and fourth respectively.

Question 2 - 3

Jacob loves to breed fish, and this year he decided to cross-breed five varieties of fish from his previous breed creations: Pittiti, Rig-zig, Gromepy, Foompy, and Goodell. In order breed the best characteristic, for each type of fish Jacob has to follow four breeding, timing, and seasonal rules. That is, breeding is affected by temperature and humidity levels, and for that reason only certain fish can be cross-bread during certain time of the day. Jacob has to follow the rules and figure out a specific fish breeding order before he can start his experimentation.

  • [Rule I] Foompy must not be disturbed until night time. That is, this species has to be cross-bred last.
  • [Rule II] You cannot proceed with Goodell until Pittiti is already cross-bred.
  • [Rule III] Pittiti must be cross-bread before Gromepy.
  • [Rule IV] Rig-zig can be cross-bred at any time but not very early morning or late at night, that is, Rig- zig cannot be used first or last fOR the experimentation cross-breeding.

(2) Which type of fish species will Jacob cross-breed first?

  • [A] Pittiti
  • [B] Rig-zig
  • [C] Goodell
  • [D] Foompy

(3) Which type of fish species will affect Jacob’s cross-breeding routine the most?

  • [A] Pittiti
  • [B] Rig-zig
  • [C] Gromepy
  • [D] Goodell

Question 4

The diagram below shows the relationship of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with the relative risk of developing laryngeal cancer, compared to other cigarette smokers and alcohol drinkers.

Image 002

What can be best concluded from the above diagram?

  • [A] Consuming alcohol and smoking cigarettes generally causes a multiplicative increase in the relative risk of laryngeal cancer.
  • [B] Alcohol consumption has more detrimental effects on the larynx as compared to tobacco consumption.
  • [C] Someone who smokes 80 cigarettes a week and drinks 90g of alcohol a day has around a 1 in 10 chance of developing laryngeal cancer.
  • [D] If an individual smokes 23 cigarettes a day and consumes 75 g of alcohol per day, the relative risk of developing laryngeal carcinoma iS almost half to that of an individual who smokes 4 more cigarettes per day and consumes 50 g more alcohol per day.

Question 5

Consider the following experiment.

Researchers say new drugs for Alzheimer's disease have shown promise in early experiments and will likely progress to the next round of clinical trials. The first study tested a drug called CHF5074 that's made by an Italian company called Chiesi Pharmaceuticals. The drug is believed to turn down inflammation in the brain by modulating microglial cells. Microglia are the housekeepers of the brain. They keep its connections free of unwanted garbage, but they also produce chemicals that trigger inflammation, which can become toxic over time.

Ninety-six patients took one of three different doses of the drug or a placebo (a harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect) for the first 14 weeks of the study. Then researchers opened the trial, allowing study participants who wanted to continue to keep taking their original drug dosage. Seventy-four people chose to remain on the drug. All the patients had mild cognitive impairment, an early stage of memory loss that sometimes progresses to Alzheimer's disease. Fourteen patients dropped out of the trial early. Three left because of adverse events. The main side effect reported in the study was diarrhea, which affected 16 percent of patients on the highest dose of the drug.

After 16 months on the drug, patients who remained on the drug saw significant improvements on some tests of memory and problem solving. The drug appeared to work especially well in patients who carried a gene called APOE4, which confers the highest genetic risk for Alzheimer's. APOE4 carriers saw improvements in test scores that were about one-third to one- fourth higher than before they started the study.
Which among the following can be concluded?

  • [A] If all of the original participants remained, were divided equally and given different doses and a placebo, not more than 3 would experience diarrhea, the side effect of CHF5074.
  • [B] If half of the original participants were carrying a gene called APOE4, 48 of them would have a score 25% - 33% higher after 16 months.
  • [C] If another 14 dropped from the experiment and none had left due to adverse events, 15 patients would have taken a placebo pill and would not experience any effects of the drug CHF5074.
  • [D] If none had left the experiment due to adverse events and the doses along with the placebo were distributed equally, not more than 18 who took the highest dose would be free from diarrhea.

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