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FREE UMAT Practice Questions - Construct 1

Question 1

Adam, Brad, Cale, Dan, Eric and Fred are a group of work colleagues who are all participating in a triathlon for charity. Following the completion of the race, each member of the group was to donate a certain amount of money to their chosen charity based on their finishing position. However, the committee misplaced the results table, and so the task of determining the finishing order falls to the spectators of the race, whose memories are sketchy. The first spectator asked remembers seeing Dan complete the triathlon at least two places after Adam; furthermore, the spectator recalls that Dan did not finish last. And, while nobody remembers who finished earlier out of Cale and Eric, there is agreement amongst the crowd Brad did not finish before Fred. It is also agreed that Adam wasn’t last, while the last spectator recalls with certainty that Brad finished third.

If the six colleagues are the only ones competing in the triathlon, which of the following must be false?

  • [A] Dan finished after Eric.
  • [B] Adam finished three spots before Cale.
  • [C] Fred did not win the triathlon.
  • [D] Cale and Eric finished fifth and fourth respectively.

Question 2 - 3

Jacob loves to breed fish, and this year he decided to cross-breed five varieties of fish from his previous breed creations: Pittiti, Rig-zig, Gromepy, Foompy, and Goodell. In order breed, the best characteristic, for each type of fish Jacob has to follow four breeding, timing, and seasonal rules. That is, breeding is affected by temperature and humidity levels, and for that reason, only certain fish can be cross-bred during a certain time of the day. Jacob has to follow the rules and figure out a specific fish breeding order before he can start his experimentation.

  • [Rule I] Foompy must not be disturbed until night time. That is, this species has to be cross-bred last.
  • [Rule II] You cannot proceed with Goodell until Pittiti is already cross-bred.
  • [Rule III] Pittiti must be cross-bred before Gromepy.
  • [Rule IV] Rig-zig can be cross-bred at any time but not very early morning or late at night, that is, Rig- zig cannot be used first or last fOR the experimentation cross-breeding.

(2) Which type of fish species will Jacob cross-breed first?

  • [A] Pittiti
  • [B] Rig-zig
  • [C] Goodell
  • [D] Foompy

(3) Which type of fish species will affect Jacob’s cross-breeding routine the most?

  • [A] Pittiti
  • [B] Rig-zig
  • [C] Gromepy
  • [D] Goodell

Question 4

The following graph charts the incidence of disease and vaccine coverage (along with adverse events related to the vaccine) over the course of the implementation of an immunisation program.

umat construct section 1 questions

What can safely be determined from the graph above?

  • [A] There is a latency period between the administration of vaccines and the impact of those vaccines on disease rates at a population level.
  • [B] Outbreaks of disease can cause loss of confidence in vaccinations, resulting in a drop in vaccine coverage.
  • [C] Mortality rates among infected individuals decrease due to increased vaccination coverage.
  • [D] Adverse effects resulting from the disease in the graph are dependent on disease rates.

Question 5

Consider the following experiment.

Researchers say new drugs for Alzheimer's disease have shown promise in early experiments and will likely progress to the next round of clinical trials. The first study tested a drug called CHF5074 that's made by an Italian company called Chiesi Pharmaceuticals. The drug is believed to turn down inflammation in the brain by modulating microglial cells. Microglia are the housekeepers of the brain. They keep its connections free of unwanted garbage, but they also produce chemicals that trigger inflammation, which can become toxic over time.

Ninety-six patients took one of three different doses of the drug or a placebo (a harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect) for the first 14 weeks of the study. Then researchers opened the trial, allowing study participants who wanted to continue to keep taking their original drug dosage. Seventy-four people chose to remain on the drug. All the patients had mild cognitive impairment, an early stage of memory loss that sometimes progresses to Alzheimer's disease. Fourteen patients dropped out of the trial early. Three left because of adverse events. The main side effect reported in the study was diarrhea, which affected 16 percent of patients on the highest dose of the drug.

After 16 months on the drug, patients who remained on the drug saw significant improvements on some tests of memory and problem-solving. The drug appeared to work especially well in patients who carried a gene called APOE4, which confers the highest genetic risk for Alzheimer's. APOE4 carriers saw improvements in test scores that were about one-third to one- fourth higher than before they started the study.
Which among the following can be concluded?

  • [A] If all of the original participants remained, were divided equally and given different doses and a placebo, not more than 3 would experience diarrhoea, the side effect of CHF5074.
  • [B] If half of the original participants were carrying a gene called APOE4, 48 of them would have a score 25% - 33% higher after 16 months.
  • [C] If another 14 dropped from the experiment and none had left due to adverse events, 15 patients would have taken a placebo pill and would not experience any effects of the drug CHF5074.
  • [D] If none had left the experiment due to adverse events and the doses along with the placebo were distributed equally, not more than 18 who took the highest dose would be free from diarrhoea.

Question 6

The following two graphs chart the 6-month (and onwards) survival rates of individuals with an unknown disease, divided into groups taking either the drug Paclitaxel or a combination of Paclitaxel and the drug Bevacizumab.

 umat construct section 1 questions 1

Which of the following cannot be concluded from these two graphs?

  • [A] The trial began with 673 participants.
  • [B] Those on the combined drug regimen showed more positive outcomes at every stage of the trial.
  • [C] All subjects on Paclitaxel alone eventually showed progression of their illness.
  • [D]The addition of Bevacizumab to existing Paclitaxel regimens appears to have a positive impact on the long-term inhibition of disease progression in this illness.

Question 7

The pie chart (Figure A) below shows the transmission category for the estimated 139,128 African-American men living with HIV (with or without AIDS) at the end of 2005 (data from 33 out of states), while Figure B shows AIDS cases among U.S. adults and adolescents by exposure category and year of diagnosis.

umat construct section 1 questions 2

 

umat construct section 1 questions 3

Question 8

It has been predicted that after humans will return from Mars they will be infected with a unique strand of virus X012. Once infected, only after 138 days astronauts will produce antibodies (Ab) against XO12 denoted as AbXO12. This type of antibodies will keep increasing for the next seven month. A test has been developed to test if the infected person is producing enough AbXO12. If the astronaut has been infected, this test can be used during the first year of the infection to detect within two weeks how long the person has been a carrier of the virus.

Using information above, we can conclude that:

  • [A] If astronauts will not clear XO12 from their bloodstream, the body will eventually fail to secrete AbXO12.
  • [B] ABXO12 will only keep increasing until the virus starts clearing from the bloodstream.
  • [C] The AbXO12 test is not effective from 12-14 months if infection.
  • [D] Astronauts infected with virus XO12 for some time will not test positive when tested by AbXO12 test.

Question 9-10

The following diagram outlines what is known as the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Two members of a criminal gang are arrested and imprisoned. Each prisoner is in solitary confinement and has no means of communicating with each other. The police admit they don't have enough evidence to convict both men for the major crime they have committed. The best they can hope to do is convict them for a lesser charge. Simultaneously, the police offer each prisoner a deal on their confessing to the major crime, the two not knowing that the police lack evidence. Here's how it goes:

 umat construct section 1 questions 4

8. One of you is going to confess. If you are Prisoner A, what would be your best course of action?

  • [A] Confess and go to jail.
  • [B] Keep quiet and go free.
  • [C] Keep quiet and go to jail.
  • [D] Undecided. It depends on the definition of ‘best’ course of action.

 

9. A solicitor agrees to carry messages between the prisoners. What is the best course of action for the pair together, if they each have clear knowledge of what the other will do?

 umat construct section 1 questions 5

 

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